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Accurate 1 kHz Square Wave Crystal Oscillator Circuit diagram

Accurate 1 kilohertz square wave frequency generator schematic

This is a simple, accurate 1 kHz square wave crystal oscillator circuit using frequency divider IC and crystal.
1kHz Circuit
PARTS LIST
C1 22pF  ceramic
C2 22pF ceramic
C3 0.1µF mylar
R1 10MΩ ¼W
R2 220Ω 100Ω ¼W (R2 change to 100Ω because sometime circuit fail to oscillate)
XTAL 8.192MHz crystal
IC1 CD4060

Our circuit uses a CD4060 ripple carry binary counter to divide the crystal frequency. In this circuit pulses at IC1 pin 2 (Q13) divide by 213=8192. When we use 8.192MHz crystal we can get 1kHz square wave frequency output.
8.192MHz/8192=1kHz
R1 acts as bias resistor. R2 acts as a current limiting resistor.Crystal Oscillator, 1 kHz Square Wave
0 comments

Accurate 1 kilohertz square wave frequency generator schematic

This is a simple, accurate 1 kHz square wave crystal oscillator circuit using frequency divider IC and crystal.
1kHz Circuit
PARTS LIST
C1 22pF  ceramic
C2 22pF ceramic
C3 0.1µF mylar
R1 10MΩ ¼W
R2 220Ω 100Ω ¼W (R2 change to 100Ω because sometime circuit fail to oscillate)
XTAL 8.192MHz crystal
IC1 CD4060

Our circuit uses a CD4060 ripple carry binary counter to divide the crystal frequency. In this circuit pulses at IC1 pin 2 (Q13) divide by 213=8192. When we use 8.192MHz crystal we can get 1kHz square wave frequency output.
8.192MHz/8192=1kHz
R1 acts as bias resistor. R2 acts as a current limiting resistor.Crystal Oscillator, 1 kHz Square Wave

DTMF Controlled Robot without using Microcontroller

DTMF Controlled Robot without using Microcontroller

DTMF based robotic vehicle circuit consists of DTMF decoder IC, driver IC l293D IC and motors.

1.DTMF decoder IC used is HT9107B. It has 18 pins. Tone from DTMF encoder is given to the DTMF decoder IC. 
2.The decoder IC internally, consists of operational amplifier whose output is given to pre filters to separate low and high frequencies. 
3.Then it is passed to code detector circuit and it decodes the incoming tone into 4bits of binary data. This data at the output is directly given to the driver IC to drive the two motors. These motors rotate according to the decoded output.
If the button pressed from mobile is ‘1’, it gives a decoded output of ‘0001’. Thus motor connected to the first two pins will get 0 volts and second motor will have 5 volts to one  pin and 0 volts to the another pin. Thus second motor starts rotating and first motor is off. So, robot moves in one direction either to left or right. If the robot is to rotate forward or backward then the binary value should be either ‘0101’ or ‘1010’.These values indicate that two motors rotates in the same direction i.e. either forward or backward. The following table gives the low frequency, high frequency and binary output value of each button pressed in the keypad.

DTMF Decoded Frequency Output Table
DTMF Decoded Frequency Output Table

Circuit Diagram of DTMF Controlled Robotic Vehicle without using Microcontroller:

DTMF based Mobile Controlled Robotic Vehicle without using microcontroller
DTMF based Mobile Controlled Robot Circuit Diagram
Circuit Components:
  • DTMF Decoder IC (HT9107B)
  • Motor Driver IC
  • Motors
  • Resistors – R1, R2 & R3
  • Capacitors – C1 to C4
  • Crystal 

DTMF Controlled Robot Circuit Design:

The main components of the circuit are DTMF decoder IC, motor driver IC and motors. The decoder IC used here is HT9107B IC. The second pin of decoder IC is an inverting pin of the operational amplifier.
Tone is applied to the IC through a series of capacitor and resistor. The output of the Op Amp is feed back through GS pin of the IC. An external crystal is connected to the 7th and 8th pins of the IC.
Motor driver IC used is L293D. It has 16 pins. 2, 7, 10, 15 pins are the inputs of motor driver IC connected from output pins of the decoder IC. The output pins are 3, 6, 11, 14. These pins are connected to the two motors of robotic vehicle. 8th pin is connected to the 5v. Vss is the input voltage with which the motors runs. Motors cannot be driven with 5Vof microcontroller. So, a driver IC is used to amplify this voltage. VSS pin provides this voltage.
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DTMF Controlled Robot without using Microcontroller

DTMF based robotic vehicle circuit consists of DTMF decoder IC, driver IC l293D IC and motors.

1.DTMF decoder IC used is HT9107B. It has 18 pins. Tone from DTMF encoder is given to the DTMF decoder IC. 
2.The decoder IC internally, consists of operational amplifier whose output is given to pre filters to separate low and high frequencies. 
3.Then it is passed to code detector circuit and it decodes the incoming tone into 4bits of binary data. This data at the output is directly given to the driver IC to drive the two motors. These motors rotate according to the decoded output.
If the button pressed from mobile is ‘1’, it gives a decoded output of ‘0001’. Thus motor connected to the first two pins will get 0 volts and second motor will have 5 volts to one  pin and 0 volts to the another pin. Thus second motor starts rotating and first motor is off. So, robot moves in one direction either to left or right. If the robot is to rotate forward or backward then the binary value should be either ‘0101’ or ‘1010’.These values indicate that two motors rotates in the same direction i.e. either forward or backward. The following table gives the low frequency, high frequency and binary output value of each button pressed in the keypad.

DTMF Decoded Frequency Output Table
DTMF Decoded Frequency Output Table

Circuit Diagram of DTMF Controlled Robotic Vehicle without using Microcontroller:

DTMF based Mobile Controlled Robotic Vehicle without using microcontroller
DTMF based Mobile Controlled Robot Circuit Diagram
Circuit Components:
  • DTMF Decoder IC (HT9107B)
  • Motor Driver IC
  • Motors
  • Resistors – R1, R2 & R3
  • Capacitors – C1 to C4
  • Crystal 

DTMF Controlled Robot Circuit Design:

The main components of the circuit are DTMF decoder IC, motor driver IC and motors. The decoder IC used here is HT9107B IC. The second pin of decoder IC is an inverting pin of the operational amplifier.
Tone is applied to the IC through a series of capacitor and resistor. The output of the Op Amp is feed back through GS pin of the IC. An external crystal is connected to the 7th and 8th pins of the IC.
Motor driver IC used is L293D. It has 16 pins. 2, 7, 10, 15 pins are the inputs of motor driver IC connected from output pins of the decoder IC. The output pins are 3, 6, 11, 14. These pins are connected to the two motors of robotic vehicle. 8th pin is connected to the 5v. Vss is the input voltage with which the motors runs. Motors cannot be driven with 5Vof microcontroller. So, a driver IC is used to amplify this voltage. VSS pin provides this voltage.

EARN MONEY FROM ANDROID MOBILE WITH OUT INVESTMENT 100% FREE APPLICATION



EARN MONEY FROM ANDROID MOBILE WITH OUT INVESTMENT 100% FREE APPLICATION

KNOW AS CHAMPCASH.


1.OPEN PLAYSTORE ON YOUR ANDROID MOBILE TYPE CHAMPCASH INSTALL IT.
2.PUT REFF ID ......................
3.INSTALL ALL APPLICATIONS 1 BY 1 AS GIVEN THERE ACCORDINGLY.
4.YOU WILL GET A LIST OF MAXIMUM  10  APP TO  INSTALL AS SOON AS YOU
COMPLETE THIS PROCESS YOUR CHAMPCASH APP WILL OPEN AND YOUR REFF ID WILL
GET ACTIVE  AND YOU GET 1$ BONUS.
5.THEN GO TO INVITE AND EARN AND START REFF OTHERS.
6.WE GET PAYMENT IN 3 WAYS

1.BANK ACCOUNT REDEEM IS MIN 10$.
2.RECHARGE LEAVING THE BONUS AMOUNT 1$ .MAX 50RS RECHARGE PER DAY.
3.WORLDS 1ST COMPANY WITH 100% FREE WITHOUT INVESTNMENT CONCEPT .
NO LIABILITY
NO MONEY ROTATION
NO PRODUCT SELLING

HOW DOES THE COMPANY GIVES MONEY WITHOUT TAKING ANY INVESTMENT ?
ITS IS GENERATING MONEY FROM THE ADVERTISER WHICH YOU INSTALL ON YOUR
MOBILES

PUT REFF ID 4034758  .........
CALL OR WHATSAPP .............

Earn More Panel : ...

Features :

1. You Will Earn Every time you Install App.
2. You will Earn Every time Your Team Members Install Any App.
3. You can redeem it Instantly.
4. You can Earn a Fixed Income through Earn More Panel.
5. We are First Company in World Who is Giving Re-Purchasing Income From
team without Any investment.

How Much You can Earn Through Earn More :

Suppose You Have Team of 5000 Persons upto 7 levels and if 5000 persons
installs 2 apps per week And if You gets Rs. 1 Per Person then You can Earn
Rs. 10,000 Per week Very Easily.

Apps Per Week : 2
Team : 5000 Persons
Earning Per Person (Eg) for 2 Apps: Rs 2
Income Per Week : 5000x2 = Rs 10,000
Income Per Month : Rs. 40,000

------------------------------------

Champcash Full Plan Powerpoint PPT in  English :

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-------------------------------
Champcash Full Plan Powerpoint PPT in Hindi :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2JS00lJgijXbHRTUlRGOURQOVE/view?usp=sharing

Visit : http://champcash.com/4034758

Sponsor ID : 4034758

 Tags: ChampCash Android APP, Earn from ChampCash,Earn by mobile ChampCash, ChampCash Earning Tips,Earn by ChampCash, ChampCash Fraud or Legit?
0 comments


EARN MONEY FROM ANDROID MOBILE WITH OUT INVESTMENT 100% FREE APPLICATION

KNOW AS CHAMPCASH.


1.OPEN PLAYSTORE ON YOUR ANDROID MOBILE TYPE CHAMPCASH INSTALL IT.
2.PUT REFF ID ......................
3.INSTALL ALL APPLICATIONS 1 BY 1 AS GIVEN THERE ACCORDINGLY.
4.YOU WILL GET A LIST OF MAXIMUM  10  APP TO  INSTALL AS SOON AS YOU
COMPLETE THIS PROCESS YOUR CHAMPCASH APP WILL OPEN AND YOUR REFF ID WILL
GET ACTIVE  AND YOU GET 1$ BONUS.
5.THEN GO TO INVITE AND EARN AND START REFF OTHERS.
6.WE GET PAYMENT IN 3 WAYS

1.BANK ACCOUNT REDEEM IS MIN 10$.
2.RECHARGE LEAVING THE BONUS AMOUNT 1$ .MAX 50RS RECHARGE PER DAY.
3.WORLDS 1ST COMPANY WITH 100% FREE WITHOUT INVESTNMENT CONCEPT .
NO LIABILITY
NO MONEY ROTATION
NO PRODUCT SELLING

HOW DOES THE COMPANY GIVES MONEY WITHOUT TAKING ANY INVESTMENT ?
ITS IS GENERATING MONEY FROM THE ADVERTISER WHICH YOU INSTALL ON YOUR
MOBILES

PUT REFF ID 4034758  .........
CALL OR WHATSAPP .............

Earn More Panel : ...

Features :

1. You Will Earn Every time you Install App.
2. You will Earn Every time Your Team Members Install Any App.
3. You can redeem it Instantly.
4. You can Earn a Fixed Income through Earn More Panel.
5. We are First Company in World Who is Giving Re-Purchasing Income From
team without Any investment.

How Much You can Earn Through Earn More :

Suppose You Have Team of 5000 Persons upto 7 levels and if 5000 persons
installs 2 apps per week And if You gets Rs. 1 Per Person then You can Earn
Rs. 10,000 Per week Very Easily.

Apps Per Week : 2
Team : 5000 Persons
Earning Per Person (Eg) for 2 Apps: Rs 2
Income Per Week : 5000x2 = Rs 10,000
Income Per Month : Rs. 40,000

------------------------------------

Champcash Full Plan Powerpoint PPT in  English :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2JS00lJgijXRkRxdHJrYXJVdms/view?usp=sharing

-------------------------------
Champcash Full Plan Powerpoint PPT in Hindi :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2JS00lJgijXbHRTUlRGOURQOVE/view?usp=sharing

Visit : http://champcash.com/4034758

Sponsor ID : 4034758

 Tags: ChampCash Android APP, Earn from ChampCash,Earn by mobile ChampCash, ChampCash Earning Tips,Earn by ChampCash, ChampCash Fraud or Legit?

How To Earn Unlimited Real Money by ChampCash Android APP Without Investment-champcash trick

How To Earn Unlimited Real Money by ChampCash:

For getting started install ChampCash in your android mobile. Sign up with us you will be given a challenge in the form of installing some apps (all apps are free). when your referral the challenge you can see your payout has been transferred in your ChampCash account. You can redeem your payout in the form of mobile recharge or by direct cash deposite.You can Refer a Friend and complete challenge to earn money.

Referral ID:   4034758

Step By Step Tutorial

Step 1 : Install and Register With Champcash

Install ChampCash on your android phone and register with ChampCash.
ChampCash lavel 1

Step 2 :Complete the Challenge

After successful registration, you have to ask to complete the challange. The challange is just installing some apps. Once you complete the challange you will become the part of our Networking network.
ChampCash lavel 1

Step 3 :Refer To Your Friend

Once you become member of our Networking network, you can refer your friends to earn more money. You will get paid on every user you refer.
ChampCash lavel 1

Step 4 :Earn Unlimited

As Your Referred Friend Joins with Champcash and Completes the Challenge then You and Your Above 6 Levels will get its payment in Following Way.
You will get 50% of direct refer and 10% of each user till 5 levels. After 5 lavels you will get 5% of each user payout. Users will get payout only after they compleate challange. You can join unlimited direct user by using your affiliate link. In the following example it is shown that how people are getting commission upto 7 levels.If you Refer anyone then he will be at Your Level 1 and You will get directly 50% from him.In the same manner Commission will be distributed to your above levels according to the shown commission rate.
ChampCash lavel 1

How To Join champcash :

EARN MONEY FROM ANDROID MOBILE WITH OUT INVESTMENT 100% FREE APPLICATION KNOW AS CHAMPCASH.

1.OPEN PLAYSTORE ON YOUR ANDROID MOBILE TYPE CHAMPCASH INSTALL IT.

2.PUT REFF ID ........4034758

3.INSTALL ALL APPLICATIONS 1 BY 1 AS GIVEN THERE ACCORDINGLY. 

4.YOU WILL GET A LIST OF MAXIMUM  10  APP TO  INSTALL AS SOON AS YOU COMPLETE THIS PROCESS YOUR CHAMPCASH APP WILL OPEN AND YOUR REFF ID WILL GET ACTIVE  AND YOU GET 1$ BONUS.

5.THEN GO TO INVITE AND EARN AND START REFF OTHERS.

6.WE GET PAYMENT IN 3 WAYS

1.BANK ACCOUNT REDEEM IS MIN 10$.
2.RECHARGE LEAVING THE BONUS AMOUNT 1$ .MAX 50RS RECHARGE PER DAY.
3.WORLDS 1ST COMPANY WITH 100% FREE WITHOUT INVESTNMENT CONCEPT .
NO LIABILITY
NO MONEY ROTATION
NO PRODUCT SELLING
HOW DOES THE COMPANY GIVES MONEY WITHOUT TAKING ANY INVESTMENT ?
ITS IS GENERATING MONEY FROM THE ADVERTISER WHICH YOU INSTALL ON YOUR MOBILES
PUT REFF ID 4034758  .........  
CALL OR WHATSAPP .............
Earn More Panel : ...
Features :
1. You Will Earn Every time you Install App.
2. You will Earn Every time Your Team Members Install Any App.
3. You can redeem it Instantly.
4. You can Earn a Fixed Income through Earn More Panel.
5. We are First Company in World Who is Giving Re-Purchasing Income From team without Any investment.
How Much You can Earn Through Earn More :
Suppose You Have Team of 5000 Persons upto 7 levels and if 5000 persons installs 2 apps per week And if You gets Rs. 1 Per Person then You can Earn Rs. 10,000 Per week Very Easily.
Apps Per Week : 2
Team : 5000 Persons
Earning Per Person (Eg) for 2 Apps: Rs 2
Income Per Week : 5000x2 = Rs 10,000
Income Per Month : Rs. 40,000
------------------------------------
Champcash Full Plan Powerpoint PPT in  English :
-------------------------------
Champcash Full Plan Powerpoint PPT in Hindi :
Sponsor ID : 4034758

 Related: ChampCash Trick, ChampCash rean money, Howto join ChampCash, ChampCash Andoid APP, ChampCash Fake, ChampCash APK, ChampCash wikipedia, ChampCash login, ChampCash Sign up.

0 comments

How To Earn Unlimited Real Money by ChampCash:

For getting started install ChampCash in your android mobile. Sign up with us you will be given a challenge in the form of installing some apps (all apps are free). when your referral the challenge you can see your payout has been transferred in your ChampCash account. You can redeem your payout in the form of mobile recharge or by direct cash deposite.You can Refer a Friend and complete challenge to earn money.

Referral ID:   4034758

Step By Step Tutorial

Step 1 : Install and Register With Champcash

Install ChampCash on your android phone and register with ChampCash.
ChampCash lavel 1

Step 2 :Complete the Challenge

After successful registration, you have to ask to complete the challange. The challange is just installing some apps. Once you complete the challange you will become the part of our Networking network.
ChampCash lavel 1

Step 3 :Refer To Your Friend

Once you become member of our Networking network, you can refer your friends to earn more money. You will get paid on every user you refer.
ChampCash lavel 1

Step 4 :Earn Unlimited

As Your Referred Friend Joins with Champcash and Completes the Challenge then You and Your Above 6 Levels will get its payment in Following Way.
You will get 50% of direct refer and 10% of each user till 5 levels. After 5 lavels you will get 5% of each user payout. Users will get payout only after they compleate challange. You can join unlimited direct user by using your affiliate link. In the following example it is shown that how people are getting commission upto 7 levels.If you Refer anyone then he will be at Your Level 1 and You will get directly 50% from him.In the same manner Commission will be distributed to your above levels according to the shown commission rate.
ChampCash lavel 1

How To Join champcash :

EARN MONEY FROM ANDROID MOBILE WITH OUT INVESTMENT 100% FREE APPLICATION KNOW AS CHAMPCASH.

1.OPEN PLAYSTORE ON YOUR ANDROID MOBILE TYPE CHAMPCASH INSTALL IT.

2.PUT REFF ID ........4034758

3.INSTALL ALL APPLICATIONS 1 BY 1 AS GIVEN THERE ACCORDINGLY. 

4.YOU WILL GET A LIST OF MAXIMUM  10  APP TO  INSTALL AS SOON AS YOU COMPLETE THIS PROCESS YOUR CHAMPCASH APP WILL OPEN AND YOUR REFF ID WILL GET ACTIVE  AND YOU GET 1$ BONUS.

5.THEN GO TO INVITE AND EARN AND START REFF OTHERS.

6.WE GET PAYMENT IN 3 WAYS

1.BANK ACCOUNT REDEEM IS MIN 10$.
2.RECHARGE LEAVING THE BONUS AMOUNT 1$ .MAX 50RS RECHARGE PER DAY.
3.WORLDS 1ST COMPANY WITH 100% FREE WITHOUT INVESTNMENT CONCEPT .
NO LIABILITY
NO MONEY ROTATION
NO PRODUCT SELLING
HOW DOES THE COMPANY GIVES MONEY WITHOUT TAKING ANY INVESTMENT ?
ITS IS GENERATING MONEY FROM THE ADVERTISER WHICH YOU INSTALL ON YOUR MOBILES
PUT REFF ID 4034758  .........  
CALL OR WHATSAPP .............
Earn More Panel : ...
Features :
1. You Will Earn Every time you Install App.
2. You will Earn Every time Your Team Members Install Any App.
3. You can redeem it Instantly.
4. You can Earn a Fixed Income through Earn More Panel.
5. We are First Company in World Who is Giving Re-Purchasing Income From team without Any investment.
How Much You can Earn Through Earn More :
Suppose You Have Team of 5000 Persons upto 7 levels and if 5000 persons installs 2 apps per week And if You gets Rs. 1 Per Person then You can Earn Rs. 10,000 Per week Very Easily.
Apps Per Week : 2
Team : 5000 Persons
Earning Per Person (Eg) for 2 Apps: Rs 2
Income Per Week : 5000x2 = Rs 10,000
Income Per Month : Rs. 40,000
------------------------------------
Champcash Full Plan Powerpoint PPT in  English :
-------------------------------
Champcash Full Plan Powerpoint PPT in Hindi :
Sponsor ID : 4034758

 Related: ChampCash Trick, ChampCash rean money, Howto join ChampCash, ChampCash Andoid APP, ChampCash Fake, ChampCash APK, ChampCash wikipedia, ChampCash login, ChampCash Sign up.

Solar Inverter Circuit Diagram By Using 555 IC Timer

Solar Inverter Circuit Diagram:



   simple IC 555 based buck converter circuit.

We can see two pots, the upper pot optimizes the buck frequency, and the lower pot optimizes the PWM, both these adjustments could be tweaked for getting an optimum response across C.

The BC557 transistor and the 0.6 ohm resistor forms a current limiter for safeguarding the TIP127 (driver transistor) from over current during the adjustment process, later this resistance value could be adjusted for higher current outputs along with a higher rated driver transistor.
1 comments

Solar Inverter Circuit Diagram:



   simple IC 555 based buck converter circuit.

We can see two pots, the upper pot optimizes the buck frequency, and the lower pot optimizes the PWM, both these adjustments could be tweaked for getting an optimum response across C.

The BC557 transistor and the 0.6 ohm resistor forms a current limiter for safeguarding the TIP127 (driver transistor) from over current during the adjustment process, later this resistance value could be adjusted for higher current outputs along with a higher rated driver transistor.

Power Supply Circuit Diagram using LM317 and 2N3055 (0-28V, 6-8A)

Power Supply Circuit Diagram using LM317 and 2N3055

A Variable DC Power Supply is very important for electronics projects, prototyping and hobbyists. For smaller voltages, we normally use batteries as a reliable source.Instead of using batteries, which have a limited lifetime, a variable DC power supply can be used which is implemented in this project.

It is a robust, reliable and easy to use variable DC power supply. The working of the circuit is as follows.
A transformer is used to step down the AC supply to 24V at 2A. A bridge rectifier is used to convert this voltage to DC.
This pulsating DC is filtered using the capacitor to get a clean DC and is given to LM317 which is a variable voltage regulator IC.
In order to vary the output voltage, two variable resistors of values 1KΩ and 10KΩ are used. 10KΩ POT is used for large change in voltage while 1KΩ POT is used for fine adjustments.
Depending on the settings of the POT, the ADJ pin of LM317 receives a small portion of the output voltage as feedback and the output voltage is varied.
A capacitor is used at the output of the voltage regulator so that the output voltage doesn’t have any spikes.
variable power supply

With the help of this variable DC power supply, the output voltage can be varied from 1.2V to 30V at a current of 1A. This circuit can be used as reliable DC source and acts as a replacement to batteries.
It is important to attach the voltage regulator IC LM317 to a heat sink as it tends to get hotter during operation.
Note
The above circuit uses only 15 v transformer at the input,so it can be varied maximum upto 15V. In order to  increase the upto 30v input of 30v should be applied.
0 comments

Power Supply Circuit Diagram using LM317 and 2N3055

A Variable DC Power Supply is very important for electronics projects, prototyping and hobbyists. For smaller voltages, we normally use batteries as a reliable source.Instead of using batteries, which have a limited lifetime, a variable DC power supply can be used which is implemented in this project.

It is a robust, reliable and easy to use variable DC power supply. The working of the circuit is as follows.
A transformer is used to step down the AC supply to 24V at 2A. A bridge rectifier is used to convert this voltage to DC.
This pulsating DC is filtered using the capacitor to get a clean DC and is given to LM317 which is a variable voltage regulator IC.
In order to vary the output voltage, two variable resistors of values 1KΩ and 10KΩ are used. 10KΩ POT is used for large change in voltage while 1KΩ POT is used for fine adjustments.
Depending on the settings of the POT, the ADJ pin of LM317 receives a small portion of the output voltage as feedback and the output voltage is varied.
A capacitor is used at the output of the voltage regulator so that the output voltage doesn’t have any spikes.
variable power supply

With the help of this variable DC power supply, the output voltage can be varied from 1.2V to 30V at a current of 1A. This circuit can be used as reliable DC source and acts as a replacement to batteries.
It is important to attach the voltage regulator IC LM317 to a heat sink as it tends to get hotter during operation.
Note
The above circuit uses only 15 v transformer at the input,so it can be varied maximum upto 15V. In order to  increase the upto 30v input of 30v should be applied.

100W Subwoofer Amplifier-Subwoofer Amplifier Circuit Principle

Subwoofer Amplifier Circuit Principle:

Audio Signal is first filtered to remove the high frequency signals and allow only the low frequency signals to pass through it. This low frequency signal is then amplified using a voltage amplifier.  This low power signal is then amplified using a transistor driven class AB power amplifier.

Circuit Diagram of 100W Subwoofer Amplifier:

circuit diagram of 100w sub woofer amplifier

0 comments

Subwoofer Amplifier Circuit Principle:

Audio Signal is first filtered to remove the high frequency signals and allow only the low frequency signals to pass through it. This low frequency signal is then amplified using a voltage amplifier.  This low power signal is then amplified using a transistor driven class AB power amplifier.

Circuit Diagram of 100W Subwoofer Amplifier:

circuit diagram of 100w sub woofer amplifier

Inverter Circuit- 12V DC to 220V AC Converter

12V DC to 220V AC Converter

Inverters are often needed at places where it is not possible to get AC supply from the Mains. An inverter circuit is used to convert the DC power to AC power. Inverters can be of two types True/pure sine wave inverters and quasi or modified inverters. Here, a simple voltage driven inverter circuit using power transistors as switching devices is build, which converts 12V DC signal to single phase 220V AC

A 12V DC to 220 V AC converter can also be designed using simple transistors. It can be used to power lamps up to 35W but can be made to drive more powerful loads by adding more MOSFETS.
The inverter implemented in this circuit is a square wave inverter and works with devices that do not require pure sine wave AC.

Circuit Diagram:


12v to 220v inverter cirucit 


Inverter Circuit
Components Required12v Battery
 MOSFET IRF 630 -2
2N2222 Transistors
 2.2uf capacitors-2
 Resistor
        680 ohm-2
        12k-2
    12v-220v center tapped step up transformer. Working


The circuit can be divided into three parts: oscillator, amplifier and transformer. A 50Hz oscillator is required as the frequency of AC supply is 50Hz.

This can be achieved by constructing an Astable multivibrator which produces a square wave at 50Hz. In the circuit, R1, R2, R3, R4, C1, C2, T2 and T3 form the oscillator.

Each transistor produces inverting square waves. The values of R1, R2 and C1 (R4, R3 and C2 are identical) will decide the frequency. The formula for the frequency of square wave generated by the astable multivibrator is

F = 1/(1.38*R2*C1)

The inverting signals from the oscillator are amplified by the Power MOSFETS T1 and T4. These amplified signals are given to the step-up transformer with its center tap connected to 12V DC
  

0 comments

12V DC to 220V AC Converter

Inverters are often needed at places where it is not possible to get AC supply from the Mains. An inverter circuit is used to convert the DC power to AC power. Inverters can be of two types True/pure sine wave inverters and quasi or modified inverters. Here, a simple voltage driven inverter circuit using power transistors as switching devices is build, which converts 12V DC signal to single phase 220V AC

A 12V DC to 220 V AC converter can also be designed using simple transistors. It can be used to power lamps up to 35W but can be made to drive more powerful loads by adding more MOSFETS.
The inverter implemented in this circuit is a square wave inverter and works with devices that do not require pure sine wave AC.

Circuit Diagram:


12v to 220v inverter cirucit 


Inverter Circuit
Components Required12v Battery
 MOSFET IRF 630 -2
2N2222 Transistors
 2.2uf capacitors-2
 Resistor
        680 ohm-2
        12k-2
    12v-220v center tapped step up transformer. Working


The circuit can be divided into three parts: oscillator, amplifier and transformer. A 50Hz oscillator is required as the frequency of AC supply is 50Hz.

This can be achieved by constructing an Astable multivibrator which produces a square wave at 50Hz. In the circuit, R1, R2, R3, R4, C1, C2, T2 and T3 form the oscillator.

Each transistor produces inverting square waves. The values of R1, R2 and C1 (R4, R3 and C2 are identical) will decide the frequency. The formula for the frequency of square wave generated by the astable multivibrator is

F = 1/(1.38*R2*C1)

The inverting signals from the oscillator are amplified by the Power MOSFETS T1 and T4. These amplified signals are given to the step-up transformer with its center tap connected to 12V DC
  

 
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